OCT2 (Organic Cation Transporter Type-2)
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Mastery of the most powerful and far reaching transporter system in the human body
Based on the research of Marty Hinz, MD
Other approaches to manipulating the systems below are analogous of putting a band-aid on the symptoms. They do nothing to correct or compensate for the real cause of the problem. The OCT-2 research of Marty Hinz, MD has perfected true optimization of interactions found in Figure 1. This approach does what drugs can not do. It restores system function to normal which in turn induces relief of symptoms.
A substance that interferes with normal system function is a drug.
A substance that restores normal system function is a nutrient.
A nutrient can be a drug.
A drug cannot be a nutrient.
                                               Marty Hinz, MD

OCD-Trichotillomania case study      ADHD Testimonial

  Figure 1: This illustration in PDF format.
  Figure 1: The synthesis of epinephrine (adrenaline)
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 PERSPECTIVE: The four primary authors of these peer-reviewed medical research papers include three MDs and a medical school professor. Together we have over 175 years of combined medical experience to draw upon to try to solve complex medical problems. This website reflects the kind of insight into medicine that only evolves with open minded and deeply inquisitive thinking. We are striving to find solutions to some of the most perplexing problems that our patients experience. The solutions are based on scientific research and data-based conclusions. The truth is what we seek. We hope that your visit will be enlightening and will help you find answers to your questions.  Alvin Stein, MD
Central to the new concept being presented on this website is the understanding of how certain substances are moved around in the body. The OCT2 is the core functional unit in this process and having some insight into its functionality is necessary to follow how all of this works. 

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Figure 1

A doctor's comments


The improper functioning of the OCT2 monoamine transporters is responsible for the complex of symptoms which are categorized as diseases discussed on this website. Administration of drugs can further interfere with normal OCT2 transporter function. OCT2 transporter analysis is used to guide the administration of nutrients needed to compensate for the synaptic and post-synaptic electrical dysfunction that is causing these symptoms. Drugs treat symptoms, this approach treats the cause.

website PERSPECTIVE: When symptoms relating to serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and/or epinephrine are present, the body configures the OCT2 transporters to compensate for the electrical problems that are causing the abnormalities. But these transporters fall short and fail to get the job done. Using this approach we are able to determine and then meet the nutritional needs of the OCT2 transporters which leads to balancing synaptic neurotransmitter levels, optimizing post-synaptic electrical function, and ultimately, relief of symptoms. Alvin Stein, MD
THE FACTS - The following are some of the facts documented on this website.
FACT: Low levels of serotonin and dopamine in the brain are NOT the primary cause of chronic diseases, such as depression, anxiety, and insomnia, inadequate levels are. Reference
FACT: Reuptake inhibitor drugs (antidepressants, appetite suppressants, ADHD drugs, etc.) lead to depletion of neurotransmitters in patients. Reference
FACT: The primary store for serotonin is the platelets. It has been documented that within three weeks of starting a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor 90% of the serotonin found in platelets is depleted. Reference
FACT: When neurotransmitter depletion by reuptake inhibitor drugs is great enough, the drug stops working, symptoms of disease return, the patient may not be able to stop taking the drug, new onset of disease symptoms may occur, and the risk of suicide may develop. Reference
FACT: 5-HTP has never been documented as effective in double-blind studies. It is specifically contraindicated in the treatment of dopamine dominant depression. Reference

The OCT2 functional status optimization developed by Marty Hinz, MD, is the only way to properly manage the following amino acid and/or neurotransmitter depletion problems (depletion may induce or exacerbate disease symptoms).

References: #1, #2, #3, #4, #5


Full text reference cited immediately above


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Spring 2014 six hours AMA category 1 continuing medical education

OCT2 definition
medicine OCT2 research OCT2 care
HPA Methylation Epinephrine
Mitochondrial optimization
The myths baseline testing
What are transporters?
OCT2 transporter


Nutritional deficiency
Competitive Inhibition
Endogenous V. Competitive
OCT2 transporter optimization
Intro to OCT2 transporter lab testing
Lab interpretation part 1
Lab interpretation part 2
Lab interpretation part 3