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The improper functioning of the OCT2 monoamine transporters is responsible for the complex of symptoms which are categorized as diseases discussed on this website. Administration of drugs can further interfere with normal OCT2 transporter function. OCT2 transporter analysis is used to guide the administration of nutrients needed to compensate for the synaptic and post-synaptic electrical dysfunction that is causing these symptoms. Drugs treat symptoms, this approach treats the cause. The approach is based on the research of Marty Hinz, MD

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website PERSPECTIVE: When symptoms relating to serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine and/or epinephrine are present, the body configures the OCT2 transporters to compensate for the electrical problems causing the abnormalities, but these transporters fall short and fail to get the job done. This approach determines and then meets the nutritional needs of the OCT2 transporters leading to establishment of balanced synaptic neurotransmitter levels, optimal post-synaptic electrical function, and relief of symptoms. Alvin Stein, MD
Figure 1

  The problem with simply of using ADHD natural remedies such as nutrients without without proper laboratory guidance is that unbalanced may develop which depletes other amino acids and neurotransmitters.

The OCT2 transporter functional status optimization developed by Marty Hinz, MD is the only way to properly manage the following amino acid and/or neurotransmitter depletion problems (depletion may induce or exacerbate disease symptoms).

References: #1, #2, #3, #4, #5


  The following is a brief overview of what happens when improperly balanced amino acids are given as one of the ADHD natural remedies. Too much of one amino acid leads to depletion of any or all of the other amino acids and neurotransmitters that are involved in the big picture. When depletion of one or more of these amino acids or neurotransmitters is great enough, the effects of all of the other amino acids and neurotransmitters pictured above will cease.
  • 5-HTP may deplete dopamine
  • L-tryptophan may deplete dopamine
  • L-dopa may deplete serotonin
  • L-dopa may deplete L-tryptophan
  • L-dopa may deplete L-tyrosine
  • L-dopa may deplete sulfur amino acids
  • L-tyrosine may deplete serotonin
  • L-tyrosine may deplete 5-HTP
  • L-tyrosine may deplete sulfur amino acids
  • Sulfur amino acids may deplete dopamine
  • Sulfur amino acids may deplete serotonin

  There are many people, physicians and parents included, who try to treat ADHD/ADD with 5-HTP alone. This practice has a profoundly negative impact on the catecholamine system (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine). The same is true with any one of the amino acids. Treating with only one of them without regard to the other components leads total imbalance and a worse result than doing nothing

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Obtaining proper balance with OCT2 transporter optimization

  Levels (concentrations) of amino acids and neurotransmitters inside and outside of the cells in the body are controlled by transporters. Before the invention of this laboratory testing, there was no way to determine the status and function of these transporters.  

When a disease such as ADHD/ADD occurs, there is not enough electricity flowing in areas of the brain related to the disease. The body responds by reconfiguring the transporters to compensate for the required increase in electrical flow needed to relieve symptoms. The problem is that the amount of amino acid nutrients needed to trigger this change is too great to be satisfied by diet alone; supplemental nutrients are needed.

  By running a series of tests over a period of several weeks, the exact properly balanced amounts of nutrients needed to restore normal flow of electricity in the brain can be defined. This in turn leads to relief of symptoms.  


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Do not stop any prescription drug which the patient may be taking at the start of treatment since this may cause an exacerbation or relapse of symptoms.
Drug dosing values should only be decreased or stopped when:
- Symptoms are fully under control for 2 to 8 weeks


- A drug side effect develops

ADHD Natural Remedies Adult Protocol

General Adult Amino Acid Protocol
(may be used with all adult diseases)
Dr. Hinz developed nutritional formulas which for I will simply refer to as "NR", "DV", "DVE", "DVM", "RE", "TR", and "CR".
  4 pills "NR" in the AM and 4 PM
  2 pills "CR" 3 times a day (first dose at noon)
  Obtain a urine sample and submit it for serotonin and dopamine OCT2 transporter analysis if symptoms are still present.
NOTE: Continue adjusting amino acid dosing values as test results indicate and repeat testing until symptoms are under control.

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Pediatric Amino Acid Protocol

16 years of age and less
  2 pills "NR" in the AM and 4 PM
  1 pill "CR" times a day with first dose at noon
  Obtain a urine sample and submit it for serotonin and dopamine OCT2 transporter analysis if symptoms are still present.
NOTE: Continue adjusting amino acid dosing values as test results indicate and repeat testing until symptoms are under control.
Where did the electrical compromise come from? 
  Sadly, with all of the chronic diseases discussed on this website, the problem is permanent damage in the brain. The areas of the brain that are involved determine which of The diseases present themselves.

  Where did this damage come from? The four main sources of brain damage causing these diseases are neurotoxins, trauma, biological agents, and genetic predisposition.

  Neurotoxins are by far the leading cause. When you study them, you see that they are everywhere. Over time, many small exposures add up. When total exposure becomes great enough, the patient starts to experience The diseases discussed on this website.

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Spring 2014 six hours AMA category 1 continuing medical education

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